Thus, the Battle of Okinawa became not only the final major engagement of the war, but a grim testament to what the future might have held for U.S. forces had they continued onwards to the Japanese mainland. This extended to its once-prized conventional surface force. Surface combat would no longer be characterized by ship-to-ship engagements, nor for that matter, even air-to-surface engagements like at Midway. involved over 600 ships, not counting hundreds of additional, lesser craft such And if you're going to use the task force subs to guard the pickets, then you're wasting a lot of capability that could be more useful elsewhere. [30] Nimitz to wife, 26 April 1945. (3). XIV(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 281. They’ll be (j.g.) instantly sunk from a single hit. @ComNavOPAre you familiar with the AIR-2 genie weapon system?I feel a similar weapon system would merit as a defensive weapon in a missile saturation attack. Of course, I realize that's kind of a gimme putt. In W.E. Make the picket/escort a missile 'sponge' by enhancing its radar signature thereby attracting the missiles rather than letting them pass by to attack the core group.This all gets back to AAW/escort doctrine and how you want to defend. This was the third time he had transferred his flag in four days, as his two previous flagships, Bunker Hill (CV-17) and Enterprise (CV-6) had both been badly damaged by kamikaze hits off Okinawa. One carrier isn't going to work. The Experience Radar Pickets and Methods of Combating Suicide Attacks Off Okinawa”,, (5) saturation attacks. U.S. in modern engagements. Given the durability and reliability issues with Aegis, we need something else as an alternative. I recall the old WWII ship identification flash cards, and they showed battery fields of fire. Despite the tensions that presented themselves at the command level, the Army-Navy-Marine team ultimately learned to work effectively. The need for major repairs mounted and personnel fatigue became a problem. Of course, the DLF-3B Inflatable Decoy Canisters that I mentioned previously should be used extensively. The weapons density (and 'caliber') of our ships is pathetic. Spruance received an early taste of what was to come on 31 March when a diving kamikaze clipped his flagship Indianapolis, severely damaging her with a bomb as it splashed into the sea. their task. Japanese fell short of their goal of “one plane one ship,” but sank 36 American Many people - not you, of course - have strongly doubted my statement that 30 escorts or so are required. Single screw for simple, cheap propulsion. Among the dead was the Tenth Army’s commander, Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., killed on June 18 by a sniper during the final offensive. [9] Jermiah Foster, “Franklin III (CV-13), 1944–1964,” Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships: Their ships suffered equally, with 36 ships sunk and more than 350 more sustaining varying degrees of damage. American ships feverishly defending themselves against kamikazes and diving Ohka craft must also have a place in our collective memory, as the number of Sailors killed in the battle actually eclipsed the figures of the other services. : U.S. I haven’t seen or heard much durability/reliability data for the European systems, but at least if one system goes out, the other can cover part of the lost capability. For many of the sailors and aviators, this was every bit as compelling of a reason to volunteer as social and cultural expectations (fear of shame, peer pressure, a specific interpretation of bushido). He discusses five primary factors: (1) nature of the kamikaze attacks, (2) improper use of support gunboats, (3) assignment of ships ill-suited for task, (4) failure to establish land-based radar at the earliest possible times, and (5) crew fatigue. The radar picket system was established to provide early Although I understand that the Tomcat was an expensive beast to fly, I think retiring it was a downgrade.For the Super Hornet, the APG-79 AESA radar functions for both air-to-air and air-to-ground, so I'm also hopeful that it can direct look-down shoot-down successfully.This does not answer your CAP engagement time and effectiveness question, which is difficult to answer when using the same aircraft as a fighter and attack. as escort pickets for the main groups, the pickets will need to be 50-200 miles The Swedes, like every other country, subsidizes and plays various accounting games to seem better than they are. I don't know exactly what the Swedes got for $184MM, but my guess is that whatever it is is more capable than an LCS. ships was the high speed, nuclear powered submarine USS Triton which could But I don't think it's a terrible starting point. degraded from almost any hit. Tired of reality? "send out a sub or two and lay waste to your whole picket system. One of its radar arrays was, apparently, (5)  From Wikipedia: At A comment from Nimitz to Bucker that the speed of ground operations needed to increase put the Army general on the defensive. 36—including 15 amphibious ships and 12 destroyers—were sunk during the Okinawa Navy. According to their site, the fast forty can kill supersonic missiles up to 3000 meters with PFHE rounds. Is it responsive enough to be able to effectively deal with high subsonic, maneuvering (terminal evasive maneuvers) missiles? Okinawa”, Joseph Wheelan, 6-Mar-2020,, (3) backup to the Aegis arrays. Obviously, the The Navy additionally benefitted from the presence of TF 57, a British Carrier Force fully integrated into Fifth Fleet and almost entirely self-sufficient. Inevitable tensions crept into the inter-service team, however, they diminished by the end of the campaign. The ultimate development of radar picket recognition that the Kamikaze was the functional equivalent of a guided anti-ship Make the picket/escort a missile 'sponge' by enhancing its radar signature thereby attracting the missiles rather than letting them pass by to attack the core group. group and act as a missile barge. If the Navy intends, as they say, to place unmanned vessels forces assembled for the battle. It may even be enough to “seduce” the incoming threat to home in on and hit the decoy directly. I believe we can build cheaper ships than we do now and even I don't believe we can build a fully tricked out Visby for that price! Any side shot is significantly more difficult than a head on shot (or tail on) shot. “I'm thinking the smallest possible hull that can fit around 4x CIWS, 4x SeaRAM, 32 ESSM in an 8 cell quad-pack VLS, and a basic TRS-3D radar (maybe 2x for redundancy? [32] 5F Action Report, Ryukyus through 27 May 1945, A-2. wounded, primarily from kamikaze attacks. As attacks increased, the pickets were extended out from 40 miles to 60 to provide more lead-time for a counterattack. and start designing ships for combat, not peacetime cruises. the entire concept. Consider You are definitely a fan of the SeaRAM/Phalanx, as am I. Becton was unstinting in his praise for both groups, noting, “The performance of all gunnery personnel… was superb. He indicated in the letter a wish that the Marines would have been the only ground force used. today’s longer ranged anti-air missiles, mutual support may be possible but I find it hard to believe that a 3000 ton ship sets the low end of the price range for a 600 ton ship, even though the 600 ton ship is much better tricked out for useful combat purposes. our entire present day fleet and that was just the force for a single This was demonstrated time and again in WWII Until we do some serious reorientation of our procurement, I don't trust us to get a rowboat for under $1B. We need to alter our ship design philosophy Thanks. They were utterly fearless in combatting fires, although continually imperiled by exploding ammunition..”[10]. That means the pickets need to be as cheap as possible with just the bare minimum of weapons and sensors to do the job. For Lethality – We war. capacity of the US fleet. "both types working in concert. [27] Spruance to Moore, 13 May 1945. Naval Institute Press, 1961), 264. Imagine a Sea Shadow with doors that can be raised, exposing banks of Octahedral Radar Corner Reflectors. It does indeed have two engine rooms.The German Navy really underarms it's ships and doesn't like sonar or even medium range missiles. quickly eliminated in any combat which will transfer the burden of their "Bear in mind the speed differential between a missile (many ARMs are supersonic) and the ship. Let's bump that up to $250MM apiece. For one thing, it is probably too small to be trekking across the Pacific, or even Atlantic, so it may not fit our deployment needs. Try these fictional posts: Here are some posts that ComNavOps considers to be the best in terms of information presented, originality, and relevance. the German F125 or Meko A-400 if exported.Each half of the ship can fight independently. vessel screens? Given the relatively small number of kamikaze aircraft that Fully tricked out, the Visby would have Sea Giraffe, hull mounted sonar, towed array, VDS, 1 × Bofors 57 mm Mk3, 8 × RBS15 Mk2 anti-ship missiles, 4 × 400 mm torpedo launchers for Torped 45 torpedoes, 127mm rocket-powered ASW grenade launchers, 2 × 6 127 mm ALECTO anti-submarine rocket launchers, 12 × Umkhonto SAM, and a helicopter pad. support (large) (LCS(L)) FFG(X), or LCS can take multiple hits and not sink? VLS numbers are large, and quad packing makes the missile inventory numbers Japan, too, fielded a large force, mainly aerial, along with insight into the Navy’s plans regarding its unmanned picket/escort vessels. As you say, it would make a good starting point for a USN design. arrays are large, exposed targets and likely to be seriously damaged and Let the Navy do that to the Visbys and you're right, it would end up costing $1B. warning and early defense against the kamikaze saturation attacks. Minesweeping, pre-invasion bombardments from warships, and tactical strikes from carrier-based aircraft paved the way for an uncontested amphibious landing of Lt. General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.’s U.S. Tenth Army (made up of U.S. Army Soldiers from the 96th and 7th Army Divisions, as well as Marines from the 1st and 6th Divisions) on Easter Sunday, 1 April 1945 (L-Day). The radar picket mission was Despite the battleship’s considerable firepower, Yamato’s inexperience and ill-trained crew was little match for the veteran U.S. aviators. The lack of a hangar and embarked helo is also a potential weakness depending on the mission. expendable. So, what does the Okinawa Kamikaze and picket ship scenario A peer enemy will have hundreds or thousands Does anyone seriously believe that a Burke, But I do think it is a sad commentary that the Swedes have packed more firepower into a 600T hull than we did into a 3000-4000T LCS. Id assume that part of being a CO is knowing your fields of fire for your point defense systems and that there are well-planned doctrinal maneuvers when a threat appears. If we can't build a Visby for a lot less that $1B, or even half that, then we have serious procurement problems. "The Okinawa pickets were located 20-80 miles (mostly 50-80 miles) from the center of the defended area. The satellite control currently used on that vessel would be included. If there were 30 armed versions, then maybe 10 of these. Suicide pilots came to realize this and attempted to mitigate the effectiveness of CAPs by synchronizing their attacks to take place during evening twilight after the dusk CAP had departed for base. Okinawa picket ships were all armored to varying degrees. accomplish their purpose will they be combat-useful. The Aegis imagine a ship being blinded early in an engagement and being unable to While the radar pickets acted as the fleet’s sacrificial lambs, the combat air patrols served as its primary defensive weapon against the attacks. Comments will be moderated for posts older than 7 days in order to reduce spam. When urged to abandon ship Commander Frederick Becton is alleged to have proclaimed, “I’ll never abandon ship as long as a gun will fire!” His gunnery crews helped him fulfill that promise, splashing 9 of the 22 aircraft that attacked them, even as their shipmates raced below decks to contain the fires raging throughout the ship. 12/22/10. It would, conceptually, be a Burke (with more close in weapons) with armor. It was one of the campaign’s most devastating attacks, bringing April’s total to 115 Allied ships sunk. launched 10 large scale kamikaze attacks against the US Navy Fifth Fleet Unfortunately, it was ahead of it’s time and the design was never expanded upon other than using the data learned toward other programs. The Okinawa is a tugboat built in 1953 for the U.S. Army with an interesting wheelhouse and sleeping quarters for more than a dozen crew members. and damaged ships. [3] Samuel Eliot Morison, History of the United States Naval Operations in World War II. I don't know about Umkhonto versus ESSM, but that's another swap I'd look into. As you recall from previous posts, the Navy intends to The number of weapons on the picket ships was incredible and that redundancy Even the famously unflappable Spruance was not immune. 5 mounted in an upright position to function like a VLS (to save space without requiring a larger hull). It does no good to have redundant equipment if it's all tied to a single power source.This is not a great candidate for expendable picket duty. I had forgotten about that one but, yes, I'm somewhat familiar with it. Initially, a typical While it is true that the main instrument of the kamikaze was the airplane, for all intents and purposes, these were human-guided missiles, easily shot down, but still capable of causing unacceptable losses. medium (rocket) (LSM(R)), It was understood that the pickets would be spotted and attacked. Of course, unless you can shoot down all the incoming missiles, the raft wouldn't last long so you'd have to be able to rapidly stream more of them! Of course, fitting the weapons would negate some of the stealthiness which would suggest some sort of stealth 'pods' for the weapons to be mounted inside and exposed when firing. The Okinawa picket ships I agree that we have serious procurement problems, just have a hard time believing they are that bad. "raft"Yep, that could work. One thing that occured to me is a comparison of ship vs aircraft speed. Nimitz visited Okinawa on 23 April and toured the island with Spruance, Marine General Alexander Vandergrift, and Buckner. Operating within this command structure were multiple task forces, including a joint Army-Marine Corps force under Buckner. Vol. facing supersonic or high subsonic missiles, those are the kinds of distances That she was able to remain afloat, let alone steam under her own power to Pearl Harbor less than a day after the grim events of 19 March, is a testament to both her crew’s mental fortitude and the efficiency of their damage control efforts under the most extreme of circumstances. LSVs, etc. Frankly, the Navy’s vision of unmanned, unarmed, unarmored I'm not talking about anything exotic, just maximum stealth shaping along the lines of the Visby. escorts being unarmed. She was sunk by a kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa on 22 April 1945. Before then, however, they would have to endure one of the most brutal battles of the war. He worried that his letters were scrambled and apologized, “if my [word omitted by Nimitz] disconnected or incoherent remember that I am under great pressure these days-that does not originate with the Japanese.”[30]. If so, I'd go for many more defensive weapons, as you suggested.Good comment! CAP was additionally buttressed by the carriers’ ability to operate longer at sea at Okinawa than in any previous campaign. demonstrates the consequences of a loss of defensive sensors and fire control those of us who have grown up looking at Navy PR photos of ships sailing side allow continuous tracking of attacking aircraft but were too far apart to I was wondering what your vessel would look like. Although Okinawa is a good example to start from I wonder if there might not be additional value in looking at the projections for the air-sea battles associated with the Olympic landings.As noted in previous comments the speed of aircraft in WW2, combined with the long transits from Japan to Okinawa meant that US forces had fairly significant amounts of time available to them for detection and interception.In contrast, US forces offshore from Kyushu were facing the prospect of Japanese aircraft emerging from the mountains to make direct attacks while the proximity of the landings to Japanese bases increased the likelihood of attacks from multiple directions. XIV(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 95. At that point, the intercepting missile has a low pK challenge. While the required to provide sufficient early warning and engagement. With President Franklin Roosevelt dying in the middle of the Okinawa campaign, his successor, Harry Truman, would now have to determine just how much more bloodshed the nation was willing to endure to secure Japan’s unconditional surrender. For As April 7 rolled around, the last remnants of the Japanese Navy were met by overwhelming Navy airpower. Not even 30mm rounds with a proximity fuze. ships, the true targets of the Kamikazes, instead of being wasted against the In Mitscher’s TF 58 After Action Report, he reported they “operated at sea for 79 continuous days,” made possible by excellent replenishment services rendered by Task Group 50.8. This one operation used 2-3 times more ships than the entire current US One of the major our ships – far beyond anything imagined by today’s designers. Any hope of success relied on the element of surprise, but there was little chance of that. The Chinese Type 055 destroyer/cruiser, I would use small manned ships instead of the Navy’s unmanned warships. As proof, I've described and documented failure after failure of manufacturer's claims on this blog.Personally, I highly doubt that any gun can intercept a supersonic missile with any significant success. Plus, there will likely be one or two more inner rings to provide additional defense requiring additional ships. The foundation of any analysis is the Also CODLAG or IEP for quiet running in ASW mode, and the smallest hull you could cram all that into. usually landing craft I know, that doesn’t make sense but I’ll explain. Read full article. unarmored and weakly built ships that make up today’s fleet. has good info on all the oto melara 40mm mounts. I'm thinking the smallest possible hull that can fit around 4x CIWS, 4x SeaRAM, 32 ESSM in an 8 cell quad-pack VLS, and a basic TRS-3D radar (maybe 2x for redundancy? Chaplain Joseph O’Callahan was among those who participated in these efforts, offering extreme unction to the dying and even manning the fire hoses. [14] Carroll Dyer, The Amphibians Came to Conquer: The Story of Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner, Vol. "How about the best of both worlds: Make the picket stealthy and tow a radar reflecting "raft" behind the vessel. and damaging 18 others. We’ve truly forgotten the size of the force necessary to wage total Or are we just going to be emitting all the time? The first, and most numerous, would be those as you described. passive sensing role and make them combatants. warning and early defense against the kamikaze saturation attacks. [21] Samuel Eliot Morison, History of the United States Naval Operations in World War II. People enjoyed past glorious victories could refuse change. On the very day that the Marines declared organized resistance over on Iwo Jima (16 March 1945), Admiral Raymond Spruance, Fifth Fleet commander, was on board his flagship Indianapolis (CA-35), enroute to the Ryukyus in company with Admiral Marc Mitscher’s Fast Carrier Task Force 58 (TF 58). heavily armed and armored but were still devastated. The Navy, in contrast, envisions the unmanned extending out as far as 80 miles. At 125 miles out, they’d be too far to benefit from any ASW capability in your main group.Per the article referenced by Anonymous, the 50-foot Chinese drone JARI “has a phased-array radar, a sonar suite, a deck gun, two close-range air defense missiles, two vertical-launch silos for small anti-air/anti-ship missiles and two torpedo launch tubes.” I’d man that and grow it a bit, maybe up to Visby size (239 feet, 640 tons), and grow the numbers of launchers. The ship was the second U.S. Navy ship named after the swallow. Possession of Iwo Jima and Okinawa gave the American military considerable latitude as to how it could conduct the war going forward, but the human cost of these ventures raised serious questions among the public and American civil and military leaders as to the practicality of invading the Japanese home islands. problem. establish a ring of radar picket ships around the island and the invasion fleet Countermeasures - Picket Spacing – Marines moved northeast to secure the northern portion of the island, while the Army moved south towards Shuri. I think it’s time has come. How about giving that cheap, dumb raft a second duty: Stock it full of DLF-3B containers that would be launched one by one at the first sign of such a mass attack.“The existing DLF-3B, also known variously as the Inflatable Decoy System 300 (IDS 300) or Floating Decoy System 3 (FDS3), consists of launchers on the ship’s deck, each containing an un-inflated hexagonal decoy. USS Arizona (BB-39) destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombs at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 7 December 1941, and stricken from the Navy List, 1 December 1942.USS Oklahoma (BB-37) capsized and sank after being torpedoed by Japanese aircraft at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 7 December 1941. area which puts them at distance equivalent to 25% - 40% of the attacking This prolonged land battle had important consequences for the war at sea. a handle on it is to compare the Okinawa distancing to the speed of the The normally verbose historian confessed, “Words fail him to do justice to the Sailors” on radar pickets who bore the brunt of the kamikaze attacks and had to daily “strike down the flaming terror.”[3] Seeing the aftermath of the attacks remained fresh in his mind years after he wrote the battle’s history. Expendability - remaining Kamikazes would have been able to continue on to the amphibious 355 kamikaze aircraft and 344 escort fighters and lasted for five hours. If the Navy intends, as they say, to place unmanned vessels allowed the pickets to keep fighting even after taking multiple hits. Forget about future growth, these would have 25yr lifespan, designed to be replaced with then-current and proven tech in 20 yrs!! The plane hit the ship's side below the main deck, causing minor damage and no casualties on board the battleship. Japan, too, fielded a large force, mainly aerial, along with Inoguchi (1958, 211-34) lists the names of 34 ships sunk by kamikaze attacks, and Warner (1982, 323-34) gives the names of 57 ships sunk by special attack aircraft. Why? of armor ensures that weapon expenditure by the enemy to do so will be The guidance, obviously, was in Especially as it's not going to be US ships sitting in harbor where they can be raised and medical attention for the crews is nearby.I can easily see China egging on the US till they send at least 4 if not 5 carrier groups to do a freedom of navigation cruise then just smashing them. [23] Hatsuho Naito, Thunder Gods: The Kamikaze Pilots Tell Their Story (New York: Kodansha International Ltd., 1989), 16. I know that is also a criticism of the Zumwalts, but going back to my day that Knoxes and Perrys were criticized the same way. A better choice might be a non-nuclear generated EMP pulse which the military has, at least, done some development work on, if not produced an actual weapon. employed and would greatly decrease the effectiveness of radar pickets. future frigate is a billion-plus dollar ship and cannot be considered It would just be a matter of packaging the required weapons and sensors to see if they can fit on the available hull space.Going a bit further, though, a picket/escort that is going to be exposed to significant enemy attack and have little support ought to be as stealthy as possible to reduce enemy missile target locks (making the missiles more susceptible to decoys and EW). Radar pickets and combat air patrols served as the Navy’s primary weapons against the kamikaze threat. Once the raft is destroyed, the following missiles would then turn on the vessel. One famous example was 2016, then Pacific Command Harry Harris had to abandon US' South China Sea actions of two air carrier battle groups because he learned that China had precisely tracked US aircraft carriers. Beyond that, the number of close in weapons Were such a weapon available, one could imagine pickets being armed with defensive EMP missiles. "This is a fallacy born of forgotten lessons. The Okinawa pickets provided early warning but also early The IJN Yamato, Japan's pride and joy and the largest battleship ever built, sails from the Inland Sea on a suicide mission at Okinawa. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 2 June 1945. As you recall from previous posts, the Navy intends to Citing COMTASKFLOT Five, Okinawa Report, 20 Jul. this partial Allied naval order of battle at Okinawa (1). We've forgotten how many ships are needed to conduct peer war. I was looking at rough designs for modern pickets, and somthing along the lines/size of a Brooke/Garcia frigate fit pretty well. With both this and Iwo Jima firmly in hand, the U.S. military could finally bring its full might to bear upon the Japanese, conducting unchecked strategic air strikes against the Japanese mainland, blockading its logistical lifeline, and establishing forward bases for the final invasion of Japan (Operation Olympic) in the fall of 1945. So, if he attacks China's newly build islands, ... you know.So, use unmanned ships and drones could be important parts of future navy warfare. I've toyed with this idea and the concept of a Burke with something like 32 VLS (128 ESSM), 4 SeaRAM, 8 CIWS, better stealth, 3x TRS-3D (or equivalent), and extensive armor would make for a formidable AAW ship - a floating AAW battery. Before reading this article, I would have suggested the following: An oversized (but as small as possible) Sea Hunter, Phalanx fore and SeaRAM aft. If enemy forces are able to degrade US AEW capabilities it would seem likely that a lot of the work will have to be done (relatively) up close.All of which seems to support ComNavOps calls for more protection (ship A taking out missile A may still result in fragmentation or worse damage to ship B), more sensors, and lots more close in weapons that don't rely upon central ship networks for detection and targeting, and presumably a bunch of reloads for those close in weapons.Finally, as an aside, a lot of the discussions on this blog keep drawing my mind back to the need for tenders and depot ships. " THIS ACTION WAS THEREFORE THE FIRST REAL ACTION ENCOUNTERED BY 90 PERCENT OF THE CREW. II (Washington, DC: Fleet Marine Force Reference Publication 12-109-II, 1991), 1084. [6] Commanding Officer, USS Natoma Bay (CVE 62), Amphibious Operations Capture of Okinawa 27 March to 21 June 1945 (Washington, DC: Office of Chief of Naval Operations, 1946), 7/70. unarmored, they’ll die quickly and easily. So here is one experiment 0% hits fore/aft and 100% broadside. and damaged ships. It would certainly cost less than the potentially hundreds of missiles fired against them. Photographed by Ensign H.F. Barrett. They would not, however, be using them to conduct conventional air campaign, but rather, to act as human-guided missiles against U.S. forces. Future naval warfare will, without a doubt, feature massive, considerations for us. their mistakes? By this point in the campaign Spruance had come to determine that “I do not believe the Army is allergic to losses of naval ships and personnel.”[27], Spruance never expressed the above criticism of the Army publicly and regretted making it altogether after the war had ended and time allowed for a reassessment. The obvious problem with this tactic is that the pickets could be kept by kamikazes, while the 11 LSM(R)s had three sunk and two damaged. before we factor in any distant picket requirements. If land warfare is going on at the time with lives at stake, I would assume the pickets will be on their own. For mine detection, a bow mounted high frequency sonar.I would include chaff/flares and a Blow Up Decoy System and Drone ECM. assess the attacks and defense in modern terms. provide mutual gun support. 358. Although the forces involved were under the overall command of Nimitz, CINCPOA, it was Spruance, Fifth Fleet commander, who would actually lead the Central Pacific Force in making the assault. On 16 April 1945, Laffey (DD-724) endured six kamikaze attacks and four hits by … At 1000 meters automatically switches to APFSDS rounds. I've seen the general plans for the allocation of divisions of troops and so forth but not air defense planning.I've covered this in posts, but one of the looming problems in AAW defense is going to be spotting the targets (attacking missiles) in a sky full of debris as the SAM missiles (hit or miss) start accumulating. [28] Nimitz also pulled back his criticisms of the Army realizing that they too were made out of frustration from mounting naval losses. A lot of people tend to criticize Phalanx CIWS but the one thing it has going for it is that its radar is self-contained which would be critically important once a ship starts taking damage.
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